An interesting but lengthy book that is worth checking out for anyone who is interested in the history and beliefs of the Universalist Church of America in the 1800s is an autobiographical work titled “Twenty-Five Years in the West” by Erasmus Manford (1815-1884). Manford was a traveling Universalist preacher and debater who presented his ideas in quite a few different states, such as Pennsylvania, Ohio, Illinois, Louisiana, Mississippi, among others. Manford was most well-known for publishing his short work “One Hundred and Fifty Reasons for Believing in the Final Salvation of All Mankind”
His lengthier “Twenty-Five Years in the West,” however, details many of his debates and discussions with people of different denominations. It is also an interesting look at the history and developments of the United States in the mid-1800s, as he describes the conditions of the various cities and towns he visited. Written in the style of a personal, informal journal, the book covers many years and many locations, and a large cast of characters is introduced. Manford relates his encounters with Abraham Lincoln, Native Americans in the countryside, Dunkards (a now largely forgotten denomination), and quite a few “Partialist” preachers.
The work uses a handful of terms that were unique to the Universalist denomination in those days. “Partialism” was used to mean any view that held that some people would be lost forever (whether in everlasting torment or annihilation). “Orthodoxy” (not referring to the Eastern Orthodox Church) was often utilized derogatively to mean the beliefs of the various denominations that the Universalists disagreed with. And Manford employed many terms to denote universal salvation, often capitalized, such as “the Great Salvation,” “the Restitution,” “the faith of God’s Universal Grace,” and others.
Manford believed that universalism was the most consistent understanding of God’s love and sovereignty, and that universalist theology could lead to a unification of Arminian and Calvinist groups by bringing their best ideas together. In this way, he was a bit like Elhanan Winchester before him or philosopher Thomas Talbott and Dr. Boyd Purcell of today.
I believe in all the truth there is in Arminianism and Calvinism, and there is some truth in both systems. Calvinism says, that all God wills to save will surely be saved — not one lost. Very good; I can say, amen to that. Arminianism says, that God wills the salvation of all. Very good; I can say, amen to that. I will put these two truths, and the sequence from them, in the form of a sylogism:
1. Arminianism – It is God’s will, that all men shall be saved.
2. Calvinism – God’s will shall be done.
3. Conclusion – All will be saved.
I cast aside the dross of Calvinism and Arminianism, and retain the pure gold of both systems (p. 158).
Erasmus Manford, debater that he was, loved to lay out concise and ordered arguments against his theological opponents:
Returning to St. Louis, I lectured in Lebanon, and a man said the sentiments I advocated lead through Deism to Atheism. How is that? I replied. I am with the New Testament in believing in a God for ALL, and a Savior for all. Is there any Deism or Atheism in that? Orthodoxy is the first step downward, for it teaches a God for All, but a Savior for PART. It makes the first departure from the gospel. Deism is another step in the same direction, for it says a God for all, but a Savior for NONE. Atheism is at the foot of the ladder, for it proclaims a God for NONE, a Savior for NONE. There are, then, three downward steps from Christianity or Universalism, to Atheism — ALL — PART — NONE. Orthodoxy is the half-way house between Universalism and Infidelity (p. 258-259).
Perhaps as a sign of the times he lived in, temperance was very important to Manford as well. He would occasionally lecture on the dangers of liquor and alcohol abuse. Interestingly, although the vast majority of the book is focused on his traveling to preach or debate in favor of universal salvation, the last line of the book finishes with a final nod toward temperance: “One more personal remark — I never snuffed, chewed, or smoked tobacco; neither did I ever poison my body or my soul with a glass of liquor — do not know whisky from brandy, and do not covet the knowledge” (p. 359).
“Twenty-Five Years in the West” is a fascinating look at the life and work of a tireless preacher in the 1800s, who proclaimed consistently (and often to the annoyance of his hearers!) that God would save every last person and that someday everyone would be holy and happy.
“Twenty-Five Years in the West” can be found for free online here: https://books.google.com.bo/books/about/Twenty_five_Years_in_the_West.html?id=ztUyAQAAMAAJ&redir_esc=y